Ensuring a quantum-safe future, together 

From climate change to food security, quantum computing can help address some of the world’s biggest challenges. However, we must remain vigilant about potential misuse of scaled quantum computers which could threaten cryptographic algorithms and secure communications.

Microsoft is working with governments, global security organizations, and our partners to develop and deploy quantum-safe technologies.

Public key must be updated

Most commonly used public key algorithms, like RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography, are vulnerable to Shor’s algorithm. They will need to be replaced with post-quantum public key algorithms currently undergoing standardization by NIST and other standardization bodies globally.

Explore the NIST post-quantum cryptography page

Symmetric key is quantum-safe

Symmetric cryptography is already quantum-safe. Symetric keys are used for data storage and transfer, from ATMs to communications between Azure datacenters. Symmetric systems such as AES and SHA do not rely on mathematics vulnerable to quantum computers – it would take a scaled quantum computer over 7 billion centuries for break AES!

Women using inventory asset

Inventory and assess

If encrypted data is stolen by hackers today, will it still be relevant in 10 years if a scaled quantum computer is available? It’s important to understand that for most data, relevance reduces over time. Knowing which data and critical systems to secure now is a first step on the path to a quantum-safe future. Migration to quantum-safe cryptography will take time, and the time to start planning is now. 


The path to quantum-safe

Microsoft is working towards a quantum-safe future. This involves securing our products, services, customers, partners, and our entire supply chain. We are prioritizing cryptographic agility and hybrid solutions, integrating standardized post-quantum cryptographic algorithms, and enhancing security processes with dedicated services and training.

Microsoft’s Quantum-Safe Program is helping Microsoft’s customers and partners prepare.


Real data. Actionable insights.

Let Copilot and the Azure Quantum Resource Estimator help grow your understanding of the intersection of quantum and cryptography. Explore the number of qubits and runtime that would be needed for a future quantum computer to break common encryption algorithms.

Dive deeper

Dive deeper

The Azure Quantum Resource Estimator provides highly customizable parameters to help cryptographers and security professionals investigate specific algorithms and quantum architectures to generate actionable insights.